AZD – Azeotropic and Zeotropic Data in Non-Electrolyte Mixtures
The AZD data bank contains experimental azeotropic and zeotropic information for a very large number of binary and multicomponent mixtures. This information is of foremost importance for the design of thermal separation processes including the liquid and vapor phase. Besides the fact that knowledge about azeotropic behavior and the composition of azeotropic mixtures as function of temperature and pressure has to be known, these data also present a very vital test for the thermodynamic models and parameters used for process simulation. If azeotropic behavior is not reproduced by the thermo-package or azeotropic points are falsely predicted, simulation results will in most cases be totally unrealistic. Often a less accurate description of the VLE behavior is accepted in order to reproduce the important azeotropic behavior (ACT) and the behavior at infinite dilution with high precision.
Azeotropic points with entrainers are often used to break an azeotrope between the key components or to simplify their separation (azeotropic distillation). DDB-AZD is therefore of great importance in process synthesis for the selection of potential entrainers and should be licensed together with the DDBSP-Synthesis package (in case of extractive distillation, the most important information is found in DDB-ACT).
Details About Data Types
The data bank contains (2014-October-15) 55620 data points for 2320 components and 24044 different mixtures (22017 binary, 1818 ternary, and 155 quaternary systems) from 9293 different sources.
14603 mixtures are reported to be zeotropic (no azeotrope at given conditions has been observed) and 9929 mixtures are reported to be azeotropic. The sum (14603+9929=24532) exceeds the total number of mixtures (24044) because of azeotropes vanishing at some conditions and therefore both zeotropy and azeotropy has been found.
The following table gives an detailed overview about the data types stored in the azeotropic data bank. The table is sorted by the number of mixtures/systems for which data are stored.
|14258||28192||None (zeotropic behavior)|
|1042||2987||Heterogeneous pressure maximum azeotrope|
|802||1891||Homogeneous pressure minimum azeotrope|
|498||2328||None (supercritical condition)|
|232||430||Pressure maximum azeotrope|
|86||130||None (with iscibility gap)|
|65||287||Homogeneous pressure maximum azeotrope (miscibility gap)|
|17||22||Homogeneous pressure maximum azeotrope (supercritical condition)|
|15||139||Homogeneous pressure minimum azeotrope (supercritical condition)|
|14||29||Pressure maximum azeotrope (miscibility gap)|
|10||43||Homogeneous pressure maximum double azeotrope|
|10||44||Homogeneous pressure minimum double azeotrope|
|6||11||None (miscibility gap, supercritical condition)|
|4||5||Heterogeneous saddle azeotrope azeotrope|
|3||10||Pressure minimum azeotrope|
|3||11||Separation factor close to 1|
|3||5||None (separation factor close to 1)|
|2||4||Pressure maximum azeotrope (supercritical condition)|
|2||2||Heterogeneous pressure maximum azeotrope (supercritical condition)|
|2||4||None (homogeneous, separation factor close to 1)|
|1||1||Saddle azeotrope (miscibility gap)|
|1||1||Saddle azeotrope (supercritical condition)|
|1||1||Saddle azeotrope (miscibility gap, supercritical condition)|
|1||1||Heterogeneous pressure maximum azeotrope (3 liquid phases)|
- If homogeneous azeotrope is stated and in addition miscibility gap or supercritical condition the azeotrope is outside the miscibility gap and below the critical point of the mixture. The miscibility gap is at another composition of the mixture - the same statement is valid for supercritical condition.
- Several descriptions are not complete (like "Unspecified azeotrope"). This is caused by incomplete information given in the original papers.
- Pressure maximum/temperature minimum/positive azeotropes are much more common than pressure minimum/temperature maximum/negative azeotropes.
34474 of the 55620 (62 %) data points have been published in a book of Prof. Gmehling in 2004.
Data Tables, Monographies
|2004||Azeotropic Data. Part 1 - 3||Gmehling J., Menke J., Krafczyk J., Fischer K.||Monograph, 9.6, 6, 1-1992 (2004)|
|1994||Azeotropic Data. Part 1 + 2||Gmehling J., Menke J., Krafczyk J., Fischer K.||Monograph, 9.6, 6, 1-1729 (1994)|
Selected Scientific Papers
|2001||Comments on "Optimization of a Wastewater System Containing the Ternary Homogeneous Azeotropic System Ethyl Acetate-Ethanol-Water||Gmehling J., Steinigeweg S., Poepken T.||Journal||Ind.Eng.Chem.Res., 40, 1, 492 493 (2001)|
|2001||Classification of Homogeneous Binary Azeotropes||Shulgin I., Fischer K., Noll O., Gmehling J.||Journal||Ind.Eng.Chem.Res., 40, 12, 2742 2747 (2001)|
|1996||Azeotropic Data for Binary and Ternary Systems at Moderate Pressures||Gmehling J., Boelts R.||Journal||J.Chem.Eng.Data, 41, 2, 202 209 (1996)|
|1995||A data bank for azeotropic data - status and applications||Gmehling J., Menke J., Krafczyk J., Fischer K.||Journal||Fluid Phase Equilib., 103, 6, 51 76 (1995)|
Selected Scientific Papers (Experimental Data)
|2008||Vapour-liquid equilibria, azeotropic data, excess enthalpies, activity coefficients at infinite dilution and solid-liquid equilibria for binary alcohol-ketone systems||Abbas R., Gmehling J.||Journal||Fluid Phase Equilib., 267, 2, 119 126 (2008)|
|2006||Azeotropic and Heats of Mixing Data for Several Binary Organic Systems containing 1-Methoxy-2-propanol and 2-Butoxy Ethanol||Negadi L., Gmehling J.||Journal||J.Chem.Eng.Data, 51, 3, 1122 1125 (2006)|
|2005||Activity Coefficient at Infinite Dilution, Azeotropic Data, Excess Enthalpies and Solid-Liquid-Equilibria for Binary Systems of Alkanes and Aromatics with Esters||Collinet E., Gmehling J.||Journal||Fluid Phase Equilib., 230, 1-2, 131-142 (2005)|
|2004||Vapor-Liquid-Liquid Equilibria, Azeotropic, and Excess Enthalpy Data for the Binary System n-Undecane + Propionamide and Pure-Component Vapor Pressure and Density Data for Propionamide||Horstmann S., Fischer K., Gmehling J.||Journal||J.Chem.Eng.Data, 49, 6, 1494 1498 (2004)|
|2003||Azeotropic and solid - liquid equilibria data for several binary organic systems containing one acetal compound||Teodorescu M., Wilken M., Wittig R., Gmehling J.||Journal||Fluid Phase Equilib., 204, 6, 267 280 (2003)|
|2001||Azeotropic and heats of mixing data for various binary systems with diethoxymethane||Constantinescu D., Wittig R., Gmehling J.||Journal||Fluid Phase Equilib., 191, 10, 99 109 (2001)|
|1998||Binary Azeotropic Data at Different Pressures for Systems with 2-Etoxyethanol, 2-Methyl-1-butanol, and Dimethyl Carbonate. 2.||Li J., Gmehling J.||Journal||J.Chem.Eng.Data, 43, 2, 230 232 (1998)|